News 2018

Research Spotlight: Learning to interact with learning agents

September 2018
Many real-world systems involve repeatedly making decisions under uncertainty—for instance, choosing one of the several products to recommend to a user in an online recommendation service, or dynamically allocating resources among available stock options in a financial market. Machine learning (ML) algorithms driving these systems typically operate under the assumption that they are interacting with static components, e.g., users' preferences are fixed, trading tools providing stock recommendations are static, and data distributions are stationary. This assumption is often violated in modern systems, as these algorithms are increasingly interacting with and seeking information from learning agents including people, robots, and adaptive adversaries. Consequently, many well-studied ML frameworks and algorithmic techniques fail to provide desirable theoretical guarantees—for instance, algorithms might converge to a sub-optimal solution or fail arbitrarily bad in these settings.

Researchers at the Machine Teaching Group, MPI-SWS are designing novel ML algorithms that have to interact with agents that are adaptive or learning over time, especially in situations when the algorithm's decisions directly affect the state dynamics of these agents. In recent work [1], they have studied the above-mentioned problem in the context of two fundamental machine learning frameworks: (i) online learning using experts' advice and (ii) active learning using labeling oracles. In particular, they consider a setting where experts/oracles themselves are learning agents. For instance, active learning algorithms typically query labels from an oracle, e.g., a (possibly noisy) domain expert; however, in emerging crowd-powered systems, these experts are getting replaced by inexpert participants who could themselves be learning over time (e.g., volunteers in citizen science projects). They have shown that when these experts/oracles themselves are learning agents, well-studied algorithms (like the EXP3 algorithm) fail to converge to the optimal solution and can have arbitrarily bad performance for this new problem setting. Furthermore, they provide an impossibility result showing that without sharing any information across experts, it is impossible to achieve convergence guarantees. This calls for developing novel algorithms with practical ways of coordination between the central algorithm and learning agents to achieve desired guarantees.

Currently, researchers at the Machine Teaching Group are studying these challenges in the context of designing next-generation human-AI collaborative systems. As a concrete application setting, consider a car driving scenario where the goal is to develop an assistive AI agent to drive the car in an auto-pilot mode, but giving control back to the human driver in safety-critical situations. They study this setting by casting it as a multi-agent reinforcement learning problem. When the human agent has a stationary policy (i.e., the actions take by the human driver in different states/scenarios are fixed), it is trivial to learn an optimal policy for the AI agent that maximizes the overall performance of this collaborative system. However, in real-life settings where a human driver would adapt their behavior in response to the presence of an auto-pilot mode, they show that the problem of learning an optimal policy for the AI agent becomes computationally intractable. This work is one of the recent additions to an expanding set of results and algorithmic techniques developed by MPI-SWS researchers in the nascent area of Machine Teaching [2, 3].

References


[1] Adish Singla, Hamed Hassani, and Andreas Krause. Learning to Interact with Learning Agents. In Proceedings of the 32nd AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI'18), 2018.

[2] Xiaojin Zhu, Adish Singla, Sandra Zilles, and Anna N. Rafferty. An Overview of Machine Teaching. arXiv 1801.05927, 2018.

[3] Maya Cakmak, Anna N. Rafferty, Adish Singla, Xiaojin Zhu, and Sandra Zilles. Workshop on Teaching Machines, Robots, and Humans. NIPS 2017.

Krishna Gummadi awarded ERC Advanced Grant

September 2018
Krishna Gummadi, head of the MPI-SWS Networked Systems group, has been awarded an ERC Advanced Grant. Over the next five years, his project "Foundations of Fair Social Computing" will receive 2.49 million euros, which will allow the group to develop the foundations for fair social computing in the future.

In the most recent round for Advanced Grants, a total of 2,167 research proposals were submitted to the ERC out of which merely 12% were selected for funding. The sole selection criterion is scientific excellence.

Summary of the Fair Social Computing project proposal


Social computing represents a societal-scale symbiosis of humans and computational systems, where humans interact via and with computers, actively providing inputs to influence---and in turn being influenced by---the outputs of the computations. Social computations impact all aspects of our social lives, from what news we get to see and who we meet to what goods and services are offered at what price and how our creditworthiness and welfare benefits are assessed. Given the pervasiveness and impact of social computations, it is imperative that social computations be fair, i.e., perceived as just by the participants subject to the computation. The case for fair computations in democratic societies is self-evident: when computations are deemed unjust, their outcomes will be rejected and they will eventually lose their participants.

Recently, however, several concerns have been raised about the unfairness of social computations pervading our lives, including
  1. the existence of implicit biases in online search and recommendations,
  2. the potential for discrimination in machine learning based predictive analytics, and
  3. a lack of transparency in algorithmic decision making, with systems providing little to no information about which sensitive user data they use or how they use them.
Given these concerns, we need reliable ways to assess and ensure the fairness of social computations. However, it is currently not clear how to determine whether a social computation is fair, how we can compare the fairness of two alternative computations, how to adjust a computational method to make it more fair, or how to construct a fair method by design. This project will tackle these challenges in turn. We propose a set of comprehensive fairness principles, and will show how to apply them to social computations. In particular, we will operationalize fairness, so that it can be measured from empirical observations. We will show how to characterize which fairness criteria are satisfied by a deployed computational system. Finally, we will show how to synthesize non-discriminatory computations, i.e., how to learn an algorithm from training data that satisfies a given fairness principle.

MPI-SWS and MPI-INF jointly participated in the 2018 Girls' Day

June 2018
For the second year in a row, the MPIs for Informatics and Software Systems
jointly participated in the annual Girls' Day. We welcomed 14 school-aged girls to
our institute, and showed them what computer science research is all about. We
spent an exciting morning with hands-on computer science puzzles, soldered
cool blinking hearts, and live-edited videos. The winners of our computer science
quiz got to take home 3D dragons, printed on our own 3D printers.

Research Spotlight: From Newton to Turing to cyber-physical systems

February 2018
In 1937, a young Englishman by the name of Alan M. Turing published a paper with the obscure title "On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem'' in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. In doing so, he arguably laid the mathematical foundations of modern computer science. Turing's seminal contribution was to show that the famous Entscheidungsproblem, formulated by the great German mathematician David Hilbert several years earlier, could not be solved: more precisely, Turing proved (in modern parlance) that the problem of determining whether a given computer program halts could not be done algorithmically---in other words that the famous Halting Problem is undecidable.

Although seemingly at the time a rather esoteric concern, the Halting Problem (and related questions) have dramatically gained in importance and relevance in more contemporary times. Fast forward to the 21st Century: nowadays, it is widely acknowledged that enabling engineers, programmers, and researchers to automatically verify and certify the correctness of the computer systems that they design is one of the Grand Challenges of computer science. In increasingly many instances, it is absolutely critical that the software governing various aspects of our daily lives (such as that running on an aircraft controller, for example) behave exactly as intended, lest catastrophic consequences ensue.


What classes of infinite-state programs can be analyzed algorithmically?


Researchers at the Foundations of Algorithmic Verification group are investigating what classes of infinite-state programs can, at least in principle, be fully handled and analyzed algorithmically by viewing computer programs abstractly as dynamical systems, and they seek to design exact algorithms enabling one to fully analyse the behaviour of such systems. In particular, they are presently tackling a range of central algorithmic problems from verification, synthesis, performance, and control for linear dynamical systems, drawing among others on tools from number theory, Diophantine geometry, and algebraic geometry, with the overarching goal of offering a systematic exact computational treatment of various important classes of dynamical systems and other fundamental models used in mathematics, computer science, and the quantitative sciences. Some of their achievements include several decidability and hardness results for linear recurrence sequences, which can be used to model simple loops in computer programs, answering a number of longstanding open questions in the mathematics and computer science literature.

In a series of recent papers [1, 2],  they have attacked the so-called Zero Problem for linear differential equations, i.e., the question of determining algorithmically whether the unique solution to a given linear differential equation has a zero or not. Such equations, which go back as far as Newton, are ubiquitous in mathematics, physics, and engineering; they are also particularly useful to model cyber-physical systems, i.e., digital systems that evolve in and interact with a continuous environment. In their work, they obtained several important partial results: if one is interested in the existence of a zero over a bounded time interval, then it is possible to determine this algorithmically, provided that a certain hypothesis from the mathematical field of number theory, known as Schanuel's Conjecture, is true. They were also able to partially account for the fact that the Zero Problem has hitherto remained open in full generality: indeed, if one were able to solve it in dimension 9 (or higher), then in turn this would enable one to solve various longstanding hard open problems from a field of mathematics known as Diophantine approximation. In doing so, they therefore exhibited surprising and unexpected connections between the modelling and analysis of cyber-physical systems and seemingly completely unrelated deep mathematical theories dealing with questions about whole numbers.

References


[1] Ventsislav Chonev, Joel Ouaknine, and James Worrell. On recurrent reachability for continuous linear dynamical systems. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS), 2016.

[2] Ventsislav Chonev, Joel Ouaknine, and James Worrell. On the Skolem Problem for continuous linear dynamical systems. In Proceedings of the 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP), 2016.

Björn Brandenburg receives SIGBED Early Career Award

February 2018
MPI-SWS faculty member Björn Brandenburg has received the first ever SIGBED Early Career Researcher Award. The award is given by ACM SIGBED to recognize outstanding contributions by young investigators in the area of embedded, real-time, and cyber-physical systems.

A week-long school for outstanding undergrad/MS students curious about research in computing. Apply now!

January 2018
Outstanding undergraduate and Masters students are invited to learn about world-class research in security and privacy, social systems, distributed systems, machine learning, programming languages, and verification. Leading researchers will engage with attendees in their areas of expertise: the curriculum will include lectures, projects, and interaction with faculty from participating institutions.

Attendees will be exposed to state-of-the-art research in computer science, have the opportunity to interact one-on-one with internationally leading scientists from three of the foremost academic institutions in research and higher learning in the US and in Europe, and network with like-minded students. They will get a sense of what it is like to pursue an academic or industrial research career in computer science and have a head start when applying for graduate school.

Applications are due by February 7, 2018. Travel and accommodation will be covered for accepted students.

More info can be found on the CMMRS website.

POPLpalooza: Five MPI-SWS papers at POPL 2018 + a new record!

January 2018
In 2018, MPI-SWS researchers authored a total of five POPL papers:
  • Parametricity versus the Universal Type. Dominique Devriese, Marco Patrignani, Frank Piessens.
  • Effective Stateless Model Checking for C/C++ Concurrency. Michalis Kokologiannakis, Ori Lahav, Kostis Sagonas, Viktor Vafeiadis.
  • Monadic refinements for relational cost analysis. Ivan Radicek, Gilles Barthe, Marco Gaboardi, Deepak Garg, Florian Zuleger.
  • Why is Random Testing Effective for Partition Tolerance Bugs? Rupak Majumdar, Filip Niksic.
  • RustBelt: Securing the Foundations of the Rust Programming Language. Ralf Jung, Jacques-Henri Jourdan, Robbert Krebbers, Derek Dreyer.

Furthermore, with the "RustBelt" paper, MPI-SWS faculty member Derek Dreyer cements a 10-year streak of having at least one POPL paper each year, breaking the all-time record of 9 years previously held by John Mitchell at Stanford. Congratulations Derek!

Research Spotlight: Teaching machine learning algorithms to be fair

January 2018
Machine learning algorithms are increasingly being used to automate decision making in several domains such as hiring, lending and crime-risk prediction. These algorithms have shown significant promise in leveraging large or “big” training datasets to achieve high prediction accuracy, sometimes surpassing even human accuracy.

Unfortunately, some recent investigations have shown that machine learning algorithms can also lead to unfair outcomes. For example, a recent ProPublica study found that COMPAS, a tool used in US courtrooms for assisting judges with crime risk prediction, was unfair towards black defendants. In fact, several studies from governments, regulatory authorities, researchers as well as civil rights groups have raised concerns about machine learning potentially acting as a tool for perpetuating existing unfair practices in society, and worse, introducing new kinds of unfairness in prediction tasks. As a consequence, a flurry of recent research has focused on defining and implementing appropriate computational notions of fairness for machine learning algorithms.



Parity-based fairness


Existing computational notions of fairness in the machine learning literature are largely inspired by the concept of discrimination in social sciences and law. These notions require the decision outcomes to ensure parity (i.e. equality) in treatment and in impact.

Notions based on parity in treatment require that the decision algorithm should not take into account the sensitive feature information (e.g., gender, race) of a user. Notions based on parity in impact require that the decision algorithm should give beneficial decision outcomes (e.g., granting a loan) to similar percentages of people from all sensitive feature groups (e.g., men, women).

However, in many cases, these existing notions are too stringent and can lead to unexpected side effects. For example, ensuring parity has been shown to lead to significant reductions in prediction accuracy. Parity may also lead to scenarios where none of the groups involved in decision making (e.g., neither men nor women) get beneficial outcomes. In other words, these scenarios might be preferred neither by the decision maker using the algorithm (due to diminished accuracy), nor by the groups involved (due to very little benefits).

User preferences and fairness


In recent work, to appear at NIPS 2017, researchers at MPI-SWS have introduced two new computational notions of algorithmic fairness: preferred treatment and preferred impact. These notions are inspired by ideas related to envy-freeness and bargaining problem in economics and game theory. Preferred treatment and preferred impact leverage these ideas to build more accurate solutions that are preferable for both the decision maker and the user groups.

The new notion of preferred treatment allows basing the decisions on sensitive feature information (thereby relaxing the parity treatment criterion) as long as the decision outcomes do not lead to envy. That is, each group of users prefers their own group membership over other groups and does not feel that presenting itself to the algorithm as another group would have led to better outcomes for the group.

The new notion of preferred impact allows differences in beneficial outcome rates for different groups (thereby relaxing the parity impact criterion) as long as all the groups get more beneficial outcomes than what they would have received under the parity impact criterion.

In their work, MPI-SWS researchers have developed a technique to ensure machine learning algorithms satisfy preferred treatment and / or preferred impact. They also tested their technique by designing crime-predicting machine-learning algorithms that satisfy the above-mentioned notions. In their experiments, they show that preference-based fairness notions can provide significant gains in overall decision-making accuracy as compared to parity-based fairness, while simultaneously increasing the beneficial outcomes for the groups involved.

This work is one of the most recent additions to an expanding set of techniques developed by MPI-SWS researchers to enable fairness, accountability and interpretability of machine learning algorithms.

References


Bilal Zafar, Isabel Valera, Manuel Gomez Rodriguez, Krishna Gummadi and Adrian Weller. From Parity to Preference: Learning with Cost-effective Notions of Fairness. Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), Long Beach (CA, USA), December 2017